THE BROADENING OF HUMANISM 231 object to the pagan element in the classics, but most of them found it easy to reconcile themselves to the established practice by regarding the ancient languages as an aid to piety. This view showed itself most plainly in the characterization of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew as " holy languages," and in the occasional use of the New Testament in beginning the study of Latin and Greek. But though the schools and universities settled down into an educational orthodoxy with all the powers of law and scholastic tradition behind it, there were great social and intellectual forces at work outside them making for progress ; and before long the movement towards the broadening of education which had been interrupted by the Reformation made a fresh beginning. The chief impetus to reform came from the rise of a new nobility under Tudor auspices, many of whom had won their place by their personal energy and gifts. This noble class had no great interest in the scholarly studies of the schools, but they were quick to realize the importance of the kind of education that would make them more efficient in their station, and were willing to try the subjects likely to help them to achieve their ambitions. They were led in this way to take up the study of the various arts and sciences that had a bearing on practical life—both old subjects like arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music, which had got fresh value with the advance of learning, and new subjects of obvious utility like French and Italian, chemistry, painting, etc.—and, above all, the physical exercises that would fit them for the activities of peace and war. This course was the easier to take because it had already been taken by Italian youth of the same social standing, and was to be found set forth explicitly in books like the Courtier (of which book Hoby's translation had appeared in 1561), or, better still, perhaps, could be followed at first hand in Italy itself. It must not be thought, however, that this movement drew all its inspiration from the Continent. There were, no doubt, some " Italianate " Englishmen who despised English ways. But with national pride running high in the spacious days of Queen Elizabeth such men were the exceptions. The young English gentleman was generally a good patriot, and would have said with Mulcaster: "I love Rome, but London better. I favour Italy, but England more. I know the Latin, but worship the English." One proof of that was the growing appreciation of the English language as a means of expression on all manner of subjects.